As nation reconciles with itself, a successful transition helps Rwanda recover from past wounds
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Like other African Countries, Rwanda faces unsustainable spiral of growing population, decreasing per capita food supplies and worsening environmental degradation. The critical links here are chronic poverty, a productive sector dominated by subsistence agriculture, and fuel food as the primary source of domestic energy. In addition, over cropping and over grazing destroy vast tracts of tropical forests, thereby contributing to soil erosion and desertification. In Rwanda, this baseline of environmental degradation has been severely exacerbated by conflict and the attendant large, repeated displacements of population, as well as the need to permanently resettle millions of returnees since 1994.
National strategies In Rwanda, issues of environmental protection are implicated only indirectly, within the overall strategies for transformation of the productive sector (including creation of off-farm employment), improving food security and transforming Rwanda's traditional patterns of human settlement.

National action plan in 1996, the National Environmental Action plan was revised, and a draft strategy produced. A national policy paper on water was produced as a legal framework. Since 1997, the Rwanda Government has been elaborating a National strategy and plan of Action on Biodiversity (BSAP) setting targets and priorities in line with other global recommendations. In 1999, the Government, in cooperation with the European Union drafted an action plan for reforestation.

Regional cooperation Rwanda is part of regional development. Initiative such as the Nile Basin Co-operative framework, and the Development of a Regional Strategic Action plan for Environmental and Biodiversity Resources of Congo Basin Eco-Systems. For instance, the Nyungwe forest and Volcano Park fall within regional frameworks for environmental protection and cooperation including the International Gorilla Conservation programme. Since 1970, there has been an institutional framework for Akagera Basin Riparian Countries for a better use of resources common for those countries.

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