As nation reconciles with itself, a successful transition helps Rwanda recover from past wounds
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Type: Republic.

Independence: July 1, 1962.

Constitution: June 10, 1991.

  • Executive-president (chief of state), prime minister (head of war for transition to multi-party parliamentary democracy
  • Legislative-National Assembly.
  • Judicial-Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, Council of State, Court of Appeals.
    Administrative subdivisions: 12 provinces, 106 districts.

  • Butare
  • Byumba
  • Gikongoro
  • Gysenyi
  • Gitarama
  • Kibungo
  • Kibuye
  • Kigali (Ville)
  • Kigali-Ngali
  • Mutara
  • Cyangugu
  • Ruhengeri

    Suffrage: Suspended.
  • Political parties: Five parties comprise the government:
  • Rwandan Popular Front (RPF),
  • Democratic Republican Movement (MDR),
  • Social Democratic Party (PSD),
  • Liberal Party (PL), and the
  • Christian Democratic Party (PDC).


President of the Republic of Rwanda: Paul Kagame

Prime Minister: H.E. Bernard MAKUZA

Table of ministers

In all countries, institutions of governance exert primordial influence over a society's stability, prosperity, and the well being of its citizens. The long-term stability of governance, in turn, is heavily dependent upon citizen "buy-in," that is, the people's belief in the justness and fairness of their governing institutions.
In Rwanda, the genocide and its attendant destruction were orchestrated by an authoritarian and centralized state. The consequence were many:
1.The human resource base, including most trained professionals, was decimated trough death or flight.
2.Government buildings were looted and destroyed.
3.Government documents, achieves and databanks were lost.
4.Government institutions, generally, lost all credibility.

After its military victory in July 1994, the RPF organized a coalition government similar to that established by President Habyarimana in 1992. Called The Broad Based Government of National Unity, its fundamental law is based on a combination of the constitution, the Arusha accords, and political declarations by the parties. The MRND Party was outlawed. Political organizing is banned until 2003.
The biggest problems facing the government are reintegration of more than 2 million refugees returning from as long ago as 1959; the end of the insurgency and counter-insurgency among ex-military and Interahamwe militia and the Rwandan Patriotic Army, which is concentrated in the north and south west; and the shift away from crisis to medium- and long-term development planning.


The military establishment is comprised of an army and a paramilitary gendarmerie. Defence spending continues to represent a disproportionate share of the national budget, largely due to continuing security problems along the frontiers with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Burundi in the aftermath of the war. The government has launched an ambitious plan to demobilize thousands of soldiers.


Rwanda has been the center of much international attention since the war and genocide of 1994. Rwanda is an active member of the UN, having presided over the Security Council during part of 1995. The UN assistance mission in Rwanda, a UN chapter 6 peacekeeping operation, involved personnel from more than a dozen countries. Most of the UN development and humanitarian agencies have had a large presence in Rwanda.
At the height of the emergency, more than 200 non-governmental organizations were carrying out humanitarian operations. Several west European and African nations, Canada, China, Egypt, Libya, Russia, The Vatican, and the European Union maintain diplomatic missions in Kigali.

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